A major challenge for the development of such methods lies in the requirement for methods that are suitable for routine analysis of samples, as well as being cost-effective, easy to implement, and providing strong results. spp., spp., spp., spp., and (Fig. 1) (FAO/WHO, 2014). With the exception of spp., Opisthorchiidae, and spp., spp. other than spp., spp., Opisthorchiidae, spp. However, again, the majority of these can be transmitted by new produce. In this review, we take a specific area of the fresh produce industry, berries, and consider their importance as a VU 0361737 vehicle for transmission of parasites. The reason we believe that berries are of particular importance is that consumption of this type of fresh produce has increased enormously in recent years, and berries are frequently imported from countries where some parasitic infections are endemic that may be considered rare or unusual in importing countries. Furthermore, berries are often consumed raw and, indeed, some types of berries are difficult to wash prior to consumption without affecting their quality. Thus, contaminating parasites are difficult to remove and may be viable and infectious when consumed. Having provided further details on the growth in berry consumption, we consider not only how berries may become contaminated, but also adhesion of parasites to berries and their survival on this matrix. Outbreaks associated with consumption of contaminated berries are then described, economic impacts associated with such impacts, Slc3a2 methods to detect parasite contamination of berries and the results of surveys, and, finally, potential approaches to control are discussed. 2.?Berry production From a botanical perspective, a berry is a stoneless fruit that is produced from one flower with a single ovary; such a definition excludes VU 0361737 some fruit that most consumers would consider to be berries (e.g., strawberries, raspberries), but includes produce such as aubergines, cucumbers, and bananas. For the VU 0361737 purposes of this review, we do not use the botanical definition, but consider berries as fruits derived from a variety of plants and which are characterized by a high surface-weight ratio and the entire fruit, including seed, can be consumed in a succulent form (Codex Alimentarius, 2000). These tend to be relatively soft fleshed, small diameter pieces, and lack a peel or inner core, such as, for example, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. One characteristic of this type of fresh produce is that some species can be harvested from the wild and also cultivated. In addition, although berries may be grown on a large-scale, it is also common that they are grown on small production sites; such situations may be more vulnerable to pathogen contamination due to less advanced infrastructure, and reduced ability to follow the principles of good agricultural practice (GAP) and good handling practice (GHP) (Ganpat et al., 2014; European Commission, 2006). Over the past few decades, there has been a steady increase in the demand for fruit and fruit-based products, as consumers seek out healthier dietary options. In VU 0361737 particular, over and above many other fresh produce, berries are considered to be one of the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds that have important antioxidant properties, with associated health effects such as protective effects against some cancers and cardiovascular disorders (Skrovankova et al., 2015). In addition, their supportive effects on lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and blood pressure levels are thought to be beneficial towards metabolic disorders such as diabetes (Skrovankova et al., 2015). The UK is one of the biggest markets for berry sales, and over the last decade, sales here alone have.